The county has several on-going mining activities such as exploitation of limestone at Waa and Titanium at Nguluku and Mrima by Coast Calcium Limited and Base Titanium Limited respectively. Two other Companies namely Pacific Wildcat Resources Corps (PAW), the Canadian firm and its partner Cortec Mining Kenya (CMK) have been prospecting for niobium at Mrima Hills and have found huge deposits of a rare mineral sparking a race for exploitation. The companies have extended operations to more regions of the county that are rich in the mineral. Also Milli Glass Limited, Kenya Breweries Glass Limited and Eastern Chemicals are exploiting Silica Sand in the county. Other small scale mining of gemstones is going on in the county.
The mineral potential of sedimentary rocks of the Kenyan coast has been recognized since the turn of the last century. Silica sands for manufacture of glass are being exploited at Waa, Ramisi and Msambweni. But much more potential exists for its exploitation. Kwale County has potential for the exploitation of the following minerals which have not been fully exploited:-
Titanium (rutile, ilmenite, zircon) at Nguluku and Shimba Hills; Gemstones at Kuranze; Rare Earth Elements (niobium, phosphates) at Mrima Hills and Samburu; Silica Sand at Waa, Tiwi and Ramisi; Zinc, Lead and copper at Mkang‘ombe, Mwache, Dumbule and Dzitenge; Baryte at Lunga-lunga; Coal at Maji ya Chumvi; Sandstones at Mariakani; Limestone at Shimoni and Waa; Coral at coastline and Oil/Gas at onshore and offshore.
There has been consistent opposition to the exploitation of the minerals which has ranged from environmental considerations due to its perceived high radioactivity, to the issue of compensation, as well as community benefits-sharing. As we exploit these minerals care must be taken to ensure adherence to Chapter 5 of the Constitution dealing with Land and Environment.